Dark Matter: A Shy Unicorn?

Calm down, it’s just an idea

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA; Acknowledgment: Judy Schmidt
Conditioned Space: The vibrational idea (Vi) of the particle in the above diagram collapses a grain of potential space-time, creating a vacuum around the newly-emergent particle (2). Surrounding grains are elongated into the vacuum (3). Elongation becomes one of the grain’s abstract properties. Vibrational ideas collapsing an elongated grain of “conditioned” space will emerge as a discrete particle in motion.
The grains in the above diagram are representative of the tiniest bits of space from the dense, central regions (smallest grains) to the sparse, outer regions (largest grains) of a spiral galaxy. While the grains appear to come in different sizes from your POV, grains within any region will always measure to be the same size (perhaps 10⁻¹⁴ meter) when measured within that region. To the very distant observer, however, while grains all collapse at the same rate, particles collapsing the larger grains will appear to move faster. Likewise, stars which evolve through the larger grains of a galaxy’s outer region can appear to be traveling too fast when a galaxy rotates as a rigid wheel.
The gravitational field of a galactic cluster can bend the light of an object hidden behind it and redirect that light towards Earth. Above: The upper half of the diagram shows the path of light in a quantized universe of variable grains while the lower half shows a universe of uniform grains. Below: while grains appear in different sizes, grains always measure to be the same tiny size and collapse at the same rate. While the two light paths appear at different distances from the cluster, they are actually the same number of grains away from the cluster and would measure to be the same distance.


  1. The smallest grain of potential space-time could measure approximately 10⁻¹⁵ /meter, just one quadrillionth of a meter. By comparison, the smallest theoretical unit of space is only 10⁻³⁵/meter, the “Planck” length!
  2. If I say, “Iron,” you imagine iron perfectly well without stated discrete, or measured values for its material properties. This is only possible because an unmeasured state of those properties truly exist . . . as an idea.
  3. Just look around. That your quantized world has volume is clear enough but, without the permanent relative position of particles to each other, space and its objects would just squirm around incoherently and this is not what we see. Objects maintain a relative position to each other within the abstract background.
  4. For our purposes, coherent objects are those with a singular function like atoms, molecules, your heart, or cerebral cortex; not your bicycle, diamond ring, or ice cream cone. The removal of particles from a coherent object will begin to damage its singular function.
  5. The tiniest moment is the “Planck time” of about 10⁻⁴⁴ /seconds; a trillion-trillion-trillion-billionths of a second. If space is quantized into tiny bits, bits larger than the largest of particles, then time is quantized into tiny moments simply because space and time are always together, “space-time.” That is, quantized space and its objects evolve from one quantized moment to the next.
  6. Bold typeface, idea, is used to distinguish the vibrational idea of a particle from other, random ideas.
  7. There are several versions of quantized space. You can find out more about this one (Inter-Spacial Abstraction, or “ISA”) and the evolution of its particles in my book, linked just below the article.
  8. The “collapse,” therefore, is really more of a condensation and, in the same way that water cannot maintain its gaseous phase when condensed down to the liquid of a droplet, a grain cannot maintain its abstract (unmeasured property) nature when condensed down to the discrete (measured property) form of a particle. It’s probably more complex than described here where, for the sake of simplicity, a single particle is shown to have collapsed down from single grain. In fact, the smallest particle (~10⁻¹⁴ /meter) is so much larger than a Planck-sized grain of 10⁻³⁵ /meter, that there could be trillions of grains forming a particle-sized region of space which collapse down to the sub-components of a single particle.
  9. In accordance with the law of gravity, elongation decreases inversely with the square of distance from an object.
  10. In this way, grains are a kind of graviton since gravity and motion are the emergent properties of a conditioned space. For more on this, please see gravity, an idea of motion here in Medium.
  11. While the size of grains may appear to vary greatly across the universe, all grains measure out to be the same size simply because a grain is always the smallest unit of potential space (possibly 10⁻¹⁴ /meter). On the other hand, the size of particles (approximately equal-to-less-than 10⁻¹⁶ /meter) and objects collapsed down from them, do not change and you might therefore suspect that particles would begin to run into each other as the grains they must collapse become larger . . . and especially as these grains become larger than the required space between evolving objects such as between the particles of an atom. But collapsed grains are constantly being replaced by new grains of potential space-time — especially the relatively large ones found in the vast, empty tracts of the cosmic web— which emerge from the non-spacial background and at a greater rate than that by which they are collapsing. So there’s not only plenty of “room” for particle evolution, the universe is expanding because the newly-emergent grains have discrete volume. The expansion of space in this manner could help to explain dark energy. You can learn more about this idea in my book (pp. 156 -161), linked just below this article.
  12. Because a grain’s measurement is invariant despite apparent size, the length of any fixed number of grains in a row will always give the same value. If grains are, perhaps, 10⁻¹⁵ /meter, then the length of 10¹⁵ grains in a row will always be one meter regardless of their varying size. This is why, assuming as we have, that grain size is invariant across the universe, we would expect to see lensing effects nearer a cluster’s luminous material when, in actuality, if a lensing effect (from our POV) is predicted to occur, say, 1 light year’s distance from a cluster, that effect may appear much farther from the cluster depending upon the size variance of the grains involved. The measured distance in terms of the number of grains is the same in either case. (Likewise, could far distant objects be nearer than we think simply because the intervening grains may be larger and fewer to traverse?)



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